Entire Terms To Know List for AP European History


· Middle Ages: A period of decline after the fall of the Roman Empire
· Medieval: of or relating to the Middle ages (i.e. 500-1250)
· Feudalism: a governmental system where serfs gave tribute to their lords who would protect them, who would in turn offer 40 days of fighting by him and his knights to his overlord
· Manorialism: the dominant medieval economic system, where much emphasis was placed on self sufficiency
· Fief: A land grant given by a lord to his vassal
· Grant of immunity: allows vassals self-government over territory
· Chivalry: ideal medieval social policies -- the qualities of the ideal knight
· Papacy: of or relating to the pope, and indirectly to the pope's power and realm
· Sacrament: a religious ceremony, which must be completed by the clergy if you wish to go to heaven
· Excommunication: to be banned from the Church, not allowed to receive the sacraments, damned
· Interdict: a Roman Catholic ecclesiastical censure withdrawing most sacraments and Christian burial from a person or district
· Bishop/archbishop: higher leaders in the Church
· Cardinal: The second highest group of people in the church, they choose the pope
· Indulgences: a piece of paper you can buy to prevent yourself from going to hell, repent for sins, reduce time in purgatory
· Papal bull: A writ from the Pope
· Romanesque: square, pillars, think Roman buildings
· Gothic: pointy, spires, flying buttresses, etc.
· Norman Conquest: Invasion by the Norse into various parts of Europe
· Magna Carta: Document signed by King John, which restricted the king's power
· Common law: English Law system, centralized King's Courts jurisdiction, allowed for fairer sentencing
· Parliament: Originally informal bodies which the King would explain his policies to, request new taxes, and explain their reasoning - became more formal and structured, King must have P. approve new Taxes "represent the best interests of the nation"
· Lords and commons: Two houses of parliament, lords is for high hereditary lords, and commons is for low nobles and rich townsmen
· Estates General: provincial governing bodies in France, had peasant reps.,
· Parlement of Paris: The French Judges (Judicial System)
· Vernacular: local languages, not Latin
· Dante: An early writer in vernacular, wrote inferno, Divine Comedy
· Petrarch: wrote much, he used new ideas, a strong critic of the law and clergy, predecessor of modern writings
· Capitalism: economic policies where businesses are in private hands and strive to make the most money
· Bubonic Plague: "black death" etc., killed ~1/2 of the population, effected towns bad, not enough labor
· Populo Grasso: fat people, rich townspeople in Italy
· Cosimo de Medici: unofficial ruler of Florence, allied with popular factions in the city
· Lorenzo de Medici: governed, also was a huge patron of the arts
· Caesare Borgia: Father of Pope Alexander VI
· Niccolo Machiavelli: political theorist, who wanted to unite Italy, wrote about the "total politics" a good leader should have
· The Prince: M's book, detailed how to be a good leader
· Leonardo da Vinci: Renaissance man, thinker, inventor, worked all over, painted Last Supper
· Michaelangelo Buonarroti: sculptor, brought out characteristics of man
· Raphael: painted Madonna's
· Humanism: study of arts, philosophy, "classics"
· Virtu: makes the most of the world, very capable, best use of resources, "hewed way through life"
· Fresco: wall painting where paint is actually in the wall
· Savonarola: Italian reformer; renowned for his attacks against a corrupt clergy; upon fall of the Medici, sole leader of Florence; overthrown, convicted of heresy, and executed
· Christian Humanism: the study of "pagan" humanist themes, but with a greater emphasis on religious texts, Greek and Hebrew translations
· Erasmus: greatest of Northern Humanists, wanted to reform clergy, put faith in education as a reformation strategy for all people
· In Praise of Folly: satire about all worldly pretensions, esp. clergy
· Thomas More: Saint English statesman & author; chancellor of England (1529-32); beheaded for refusing to accept Henry VIII as head of the Church of England; author of Utopia (1516)
· Utopia: Novel written by More, means "No Place", about an ideal society
· Johannes Guttenberg: re-creator of the Printing Press, which allowed for reformation of the education of Europe, spread of ideas, "Pamphlets"
· Albrecht Durer: painter
· Pieter Brugel: Dutch artist drew pictures of everyday life
· Martin Luther: A clergy member near Wittenberg, he wrote the 95T, and started the reformation by doing so, believed people had grace and did not get it by good works, disliked indulgences,
· 95 Theses: complained about penance, said that the sinner was freed by inner grace, not priest's absolution, Written By Martin Luther, Posted on the church at Wittenberg
· Justification by Faith: Faith in God = Entrance into Heaven
· Priesthood of All Believers: all are equal under the eye of god
· John Tetzel: friar who sold indulgences and upset Luther
· John Van Eck: Dutch Painter made Trypchs, paintings (the Merchant's Wedding)
· Relics: objects, which supposedly had religious significance and were important because of that
· Anabaptists: a collective name for more extreme Protestants who had differing beliefs and leadership
· Peasants Revolt 1524-25: revolted because they were stirred by the new religious ideas, Luther recommended to nobles that they be put down
· Augsburg Confessions: set out the beliefs of the Lutherans
· Lutherans: followers of Luther
· "Cuius regio, eius religio": whose the region, his the religion
· Ulrich Zwingli: Founder of Swiss Reform Church
· Transubstantiation: bread and wine turn into the blood and wine of Christ
· Consubstantiation: bread and wine are intermingled with God
· John Calvin: trained priest/lawyer, had religious insight, wrote Institutes of the Christian Religion in which he wrote in a logical style and dealt with issues, adapted many of Luther's ideas
· The Elect: predestined for salvation
· Predestination: already decided whether or not you are damned, can do nothing about it
· John Knox: brought Calvinism to Scotland, where it took hold
· Presbyterianism: descendent of the Calvinist Church
· Independants:
· Henry VIII: King of England who was a devote Catholic, but desired for a male heir, so he wanted his marriage to CoA annulled, Pope would not annul it, so H8 his ties to Rome
· Catherine of Aragon: Aunt of Holy Roman Emp., Pope did not want to offend the HRE so did not annul
· Anne Boleyn: Whom he married after CoA, put her to death b/c of no male heir
· Act of Supremacy: English King is the supreme head of the English Church
· Thomas Cromwell: Earl of Essex English statesman; principal adviser to Henry VIII (1532-40); drafted most of Reformation acts (1532-39); put into effect suppression of monasteries (1536-39); accused of treason, beheaded
· Edward VI: Child ruler, under whom parliament gained much power and spec. The puritans gained power
· Mary Tudor: Tries to recatholicize England, just makes it more unpopular "Bloody Mary"
· Elizabeth I: makes England Protestant, clergy marry, English used
· Thirty-Nine Articles: define beliefs of English Church
· Pope Paul III: Authorizes the new kind of monastic order that is the Jesuits
· Council of Trent: for Church reformation, little was done except reinforce church doctrine
· St. Teresa: Spanish Carmelite & mystic; founded many convents and monasteries; famous for her mystical visions
· Mysticism: individual relations with god
· Ignatius Loyola: soldier, churchmen, and founder of Jesuits
· Jesuits: new monastic order, soldiers of god, smart, well trained, convincing, protecting catholic ideas
· Philip II: fanatical catholic, wanted to spread Catholicism
· The Index: books Catholics could not read
· Mary Queen of Scots: queen of Scotland (1542-67); set out to make herself absolute monarch and to impose Roman Catholicism; involvement in intrigues and rebellions resulted in imprisonment by Elizabeth I and eventually to beheading
· Spanish Armada: all of Spain's fleet, destroyed, beginning of the end of Spanish Empire
· Huguenots: French Protestants
· Massacre of St. Bartholomew's Day: killing of many Protestants, ordered by Catherine de Medici
· Three Henries: Henry Bourbon, Henry Guise, Henry Coligny, all wanted throne
· Edict of Nantes: allowed for toleration
· Cardinal Richelieu: strengthened French monarchy
· Thirty Years War: devastated France and Germany, Germany did not recover, caused by Defenestration of Prague
· Peace of Westphalia: ended thirty years war
· Quattrocento: The Italian Term for 15th century
· John Knox: Founder of Scottish Presbyterians
· Louis XI: King of France, better known as Louis "the spider" due to bad back. Got down with the scum of society à he was able to know about all plots against him
· Edict of Nantes: Being protestant in France became protected under the law
· Peasants' revolt of 1524: Peasants rise up only to be slaughtered by the nobilty
· Pico Della Mirandola: Italian humanist; a leading scholar of Italian Renaissance; emphasized human dignity based on free will
· The "courtier": Italian book of Etiquette
· Henry VII (1485-1509)): king of England who succeeded in ending the Wars of the Roses between the houses of Lancaster and York and founded the Tudor dynasty.
· Emperor Charles V: Leader of Holy Roman Empire, nephew of Catherine of Aragon, quit and became a monk
· Elizabeth I: Ruler after Mary Tudor, Brings religious stability
· Peace of Augsburg: first permanent legal basis for the existence of Lutheranism as well as Catholicism in Germany, promulgated on Sept. 25, 1555, by the Diet of the Holy Roman Empire assembled earlier that year at Augsburg
· Mercantilism: an economic policy, which emphasizes a favorable balance of trade, to be self sufficient and export stuff
· Mestizo: people of mixed black and central American natives, which came about b/c of the slave trade
· Encomienda system: economic/government system in the Spanish New World, where natives would work for Spanish land owners for several days a week, and then retain their own land to work on off days
· James I: James VI of Scotland who inherited the English throne, did not get along with Parliament b/c he was a believer in the divine right theories, always wanted money
· Divine Right of Kings: the belief that Kings are god's representatives on Earth
· Duke of Buckingham: ruled England at end of James I's reign, extremely unpopular, bad policy
· Charles I: James I's son, attempted to rule without Parliament, tried to give England an efficient government, failed at it, was sued by John Hampden, had a civil war under him (caused by Puritans), was put to death
· Gentry: a class whose members are entitled to bear a coat of arms though not of noble rank (ie the upper bourgeoisie)
· Bourgeoisie: middle class merchants/townsfolk
· Price Revolution: part of the commercial revolution which was concerned with the gradual inflation
· Puritans: Presbyterians in England who took control of Parliament and later rebelled to establish a new Republic in England
· Petition of Right: No forced "gifts" upon parliament i.e. taxes, due process, and no quartering of soldiers
· William Laud: Archbishop of Canterbury, he attacks the puritains
· Book of Common Prayer: A book for Anglican religion which was supposed to be a compromise, but, in truth, only upset the Puritans and the conservatives
· Bishops War: two brief campaigns (1639, 1640) of the Scots against Charles I of England. Opposing his attempt to impose episcopacy, the Covenanters pledged a return to Presbyterianism. They invaded England and forced Charles to sign the Treaty of Ripon
· Earl of Stratford:
· Short Parliament:
· John Hampden: Puritan who sued the king for his ship money tax
· John Pym: A leader in the Puritan Long Parliament
· ship money dispute: a dispute over the king's rights to tax without Parliament's consent
· Long Parliament: The Parliament that theoretically sat for 20 years without new elections and created many reforms, such as making the Presbyterian church the church of England, killing of kings advisors From Charles I's reign to Charles II's reign
· Royalists/Cavaliers: People who favored the monarchy
· Roundheads: Parliamentary leaders
· Prince Rupert: A man from bohemia, hired by Charles to be the head of the army
· New Model Army: Oliver Cromwell's army which used the Protestant virtues as their base, were effective
· Sir Thomas Fairfax: Co-founder of the new model army
· Oliver Cromwell: Parliament Member to New Model Army Commander to Commonwealth Leader to Despot (Lord Proctor)
· Battle of Naseby: The Anglicans get sorely defeated by the Puritans
· Levellers: Army men who were advanced political democrats, asked for many things
· Pride's Purge: When the remaining ~100 P. members were reduced to ~40-50
· Rump Parliament: The ~45 people left in Parliament after PP
· Commonwealth: Government for the benefit of all, gov. in Eng. during Cromwell's reign
· Lord Protector: Cromwell's name for his despotic title
· Restoration of 1660: Charles II becomes king of England by nearly universal assent
· Charles II: Son of Charles I, saw that provoking Parliament too far was bad
· Treaty of Dover: Secret treaty with Charles II and France, à he becomes Catholic and aids the French military
· Declaration of Indulgence: non-enforcement of laws against dissenters (an English Nonconformists)
· Habeas Corpus Act: "to have body", This gives citizens Judicial Rights
· Whigs: Strong Anglicans or Church of England men Pro-Parliament
· Tories: Lesser aristocracy and gentry, suspicious of "moneyed interest," loyal to King and country, Pro-king
· Papist Plot: Fear that James II would become king again
· Titus Oates: English conspirator in the 1600s caused the execution of 35 people by spreading a rumor that Roman Catholics planned to murder King Charles II. (Popish plot)
· James II: King after Charles II, put Catholics into office, everyone hated him
· Test Act: public officeholders must take mass in Church of England
· Glorious Revolution: parliamentary government approval - rule of law, right to rebel against tyranny
· William and Mary: William III of Netherlands (House of Nassau) and his Wife were joint rulers of England. Became rulers b/c of Glorious Revolution but had to agree to it first
· Bill of Rights: no law suspended by the king, no taxes or army w/o parliament consent, no detainment w/o trial
· Act of Settlement: no catholic as king of England
· Jacobite Rebellions: People that fought to put James on the thrown (comes from the Latin name for James)
· Hanoverians: The Germans that became the English royal family (i.e. George)
· Louis XIII: A King of France, who's administrator took over and built up the nation
· Raison d'etat: "Reason of State"
· Cardinal Mazarin: regent for Louis XIV
· The Fronde: Rebellion against Mazarin by the parlements and nobility, parlements wanted more power
· Louis XIV: King of France who brought France to its greatest power, through absolute monarchy
· Versailles: Louis XIV's center of government where he was able to keep all of the nobles in check (this was his palace) It bankrupt France
· L'etat, c'est moi: Supposed statement by LXIV about his role in the state (the state, its me)
· Jean Babtiste Colbert: Louis XIV's Economic Minister, helped unify trade regions, sold positions and titles, a large free trade area in central France, wrote commercial code to replace local customs, built roads, communication, encouraged mercantilism
· Five Great Farms: The large free trade area in central France
· French East India Co.: Established by JBC to encourage foreign trade in luxuries
· War of Spanish Succession: War over who would inherit the Spanish throne, was supposed to be Louis XIV's grandson, Hapsburgs fought to keep Spain in family, LXIV fights for the Spanish domains
· Peace of Utrecht: Louis XIV's grandson inherits, but Hapsburgs get Med. possessions, Spain loses all European possessions, keeps American
· Duke of Marlborough: John Churchill, hired by English to be a general during the War of the Spanish Succession
· Estates General: The 3 section group in France that the king could hold whenever he needed advice, 1st:Clergy, 2nd:Noblitity, 3rd:Everybody else
· "Hunting rights" : Right of landowning nobility to hunt anywhere on their property, regardless of the peasantry
· "Eminent property" rights: People who "owned" land on Manor could buy, sell, or lease the land but the "owners" still had to pay money to the actual owner of the entire manor
· Abbe Seyes: He helped to write the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen and the constitution of 1791. (Name of Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès prior to the French Revolution)
· Oath of the Tennis Court: The oath made by members of the 3rd estate that wherever they met it could be the National Assembly
· National Assembly: A factionary group that decided to write the French constitution
· "Great Fear" of 1789: Rye-bread paranoia that caused people to belief that the king had sent out a vagabond army to crush the masses that caused the peasantry to destroy nobles' houses
· Declaration of the Rights of Man: preamble to French constitution, it asserted the equality of all men, the sovereignty of the people, and the inalienable rights of the individual to liberty, property, and security
· "Flight to Varennes": This was when Louis XVI fled and was caught in a small town called Varennes, (and being an {Alexander} Dumas, he left a note saying how much he hated the 3rd estate)
· Assignats: French currency biased upon the sale of the land of the nobility
· Civil Constitution of the Clergy, 1790: Churches became state funded, and the educated monastic orders were closed
· Non-juring (refractory) clergy: The clergy that belonged to the underground, counter-revolutionary church (predominately catholic)
· Edmund Burke: Author of Reflections on the Revolution in France (1790), in which he expresses his opposition to the Revolution
· Declaration of Pillnitz: Proclamation made by Louis XVI's brother that if all other kings wanted in, they would wage war against the revolutionaries
· Girondins: Representing the educated, provincial middle class, they favored a constitutional government, a continental war and not killing Louis XVI
· "Marseillaise": A "Yankee-doodle" type song sung by people that called for a fierce war against tyranny in France
· The "Mountain": Nickname for the deputies of the extreme left who occupied the raised seats in the National Convention
· "Sans culottes" "wo/pants", people that wore normal working class trousers, (i.e. artisans and shop keepers)
· Committee of Public Safety: A group that went around destroying "enemies of the state" during the reign of terror
· Hebertists: Ultra-revolutionaries, they changed the days of the week, killed people, caused metric system
· Robespierre: "the incorruptible", head of the Committee of Public Safety,
· The Thermidorians: People that wanted to continue the revolution after it ended (for the most part)
· "Gracchus" Babeuf: Man who secretly wanted to make France dictatorship/communism
· Coup d'Etat, 1799: Napoleon declares himself Consulate of France
· Concordat of 1801: Pope gets power of French Catholic churches, and the pope recognizes France as a republic
· Code Napoleon: Legal codes made by Napoleon about judicial reform (also called Civil Code)
· Battle of Trafalgar, 1805: naval encounter of the Napoleonic Wars fought off Cape Trafalgar, on the SW coast of Spain. The British fleet, under Nelson, whoops up on the French and Spanish à Britain became the uber-sea-power for the next century
· Treaty of Tilsit, 1807: Russia and France become allies against England, Alexander accepts Napoleon as "emperor of the west" and gives him sections of Prussia
· Continental System: France blocked all British trade by owning the entire coast of Europe
· Peninsular War: conflict between France and Great Britain on the Iberian Peninsula, growing out of the efforts of NAPOLEON to control Spain and Portugal, France looses, Britain wins
· J. G. Herder: German dude against foreign influence, calls for need of "volksgeist" (national character)
· J. G. Fichte: metaphysical philosopher "The inner spirit of the individual creates for its own moral universe"
· Baron Stein: Stein helped to bring about the Russo-Prussian alliance of 1813 and his hopes for a united Germany were disappointed at the Congress of Vienna
· Frankfurt proposals: Metternich gives Napoleon the Old Boarders of France and gets to stay emperor of France
· Czar Alexander I: he joined the coalition against NAPOLEON, but after Russian defeats he made a tenuous alliance with France by signing the Treaty of Tilsit (1807) After the French invasion of Russia (1812) was repulsed he created the HOLY ALLIANCE joining with METTERNICH to suppress national and liberal movements
· Clemens von Metternich: Austrian statesman. Foreign minister and secured a temporary alliance with France sought to maintain a balance of power in Europe
· Congress of Vienna: international conference to remake Europe after the downfall of NAPOLEON All the European states that had existed before the Napoleonic upheaval were represented; however, the major powers (Austria, Russia, Prussia, and Britain) made the decisions
· Polish-Saxon question: Argument over who gets Saxony… leads to almost breakup of Congress of Vienna
· The Hundred Days: Brief period of time when Napoleon ruled France post-exile
· St. Helena: Small Island where Napoleon was exiled for the second time
· "squirearchy" - The government of England after the revolution of 1688. The
government was in the hands of wealthy landowners.

· Enclosure Movement - The movement in England to close of private farms with fences,
hedges, and walls. Eliminated common land.

· Richard Arkwright - British inventor and cotton manufacturer, who designed a spinning,
frame in which the cotton fiber was spun into thread.

· Methodist movement - many English (especially in Cornwall) left the Church
of England to become Methodists.

· Richard Malthus - A professer who wrote in support of "Laissez Faire" economics pioneered by Adam Smith.

· Carlsbad Decrees - repressive measures drafted at a conference of German states in Carlsbad and enacted by the diet of the German Confederation in 1819. Repressed many liberal ideas and their spread.

· Corn Laws - Corn laws regulate the import of Grain into England so prices would remain steady but the need for grain would be met. "Corn" was a collective name for all grain.

· Peterloo Massacre - In 1819, one of Britain's largest public demonstrations. was held in Manchester. Between 50,000 and 60,000 people appealed for political and economic reform. Government cavalry troops attacked the crowd. Eleven people died, and more than 400 sustained injuries.

· Holy Alliance - loose organization of European sovereigns who agreed to advance the principles of the Christian faith. Proposed by Alexander I of Russia. Signed in Paris in 1815.

· Troppau protocol - a policy statement signed two months earlier that condemned liberal revolutions

· Ricardo's "Iron Law of Wages" - MABYE His labor theory of value, which influenced Karl Marx, states that wages are determined by the price of food, which is determined by the cost of production, itself determined by the amount of labor required to produce the food; in other words, labor determines value.

· Guiseppi Mazzini - (1805-72), Italian revolutionary, political theorist, and advocate of Italian unification.

· Carbonari - early 19th-century secret revolutionary society that originated in
Naples, Italy

· Slavic Revival - Name for the movement when almost all Slavic people and countries began to feel more nationalism.

· Hegelian Dialect - A theory that ideas rise out of material conditions in a never- ending cycle. Marx borrowed form this theory extensively.

· Friedrich List - wrote National System of Political Economy. Though economy taught in England worked only for England.

· Louis Blanc - French socialist leader and historian, born in Madrid, Spain, and educated in Paris. In 1839 he established the magazine Revue du Progrès as an organ for his socialist doctrines.

· Slavophilism - The idea that Russia possesed a way of life al its own, different from and not to be corrupted by the rest of Europe.

· Alexander I - Emporer of Russia, he abolished many barbarous and cruel punishments then practiced and in 1802 introduced a more orderly administration of government by the creation of eight ministries. He improved the condition of the serfs and promoted education. Repelled Napoleon's invasion and was very active deciding what would happen post napoleon. (see holy alliance)

· Charles X - king of France (1824-30). He was the grandson of Louis XV. During the French Revolution he was one of the leaders of the émigrés. He subsequently lived in Britain. headed the ultra-royalist party of reaction. Catholic favoritism caused revolution and forced him to abdicate.

· Louis Philippe - the JULY REVOLUTION of 1830 he was chosen king. Louis Philippe became increasingly unpopular with both the right and the left. His opponents began a banquet campaign against the government that led to the FEBRUARY REVOLUTION of 1848. The king abdicated in favor of his grandson, but a republic was declared. known as the citizen king because of his bourgeois manner and dress.

· Alexander Ypsilanti - a former aide-de-camp of the Russian tsar Alexander I and head of the Hetairia, entered Jassy, the capital of Moldavia (then Turkish territory), with a small force and proclaimed the independence of Greece.

· July Ordinances - Ordinances issued by Charles X he issued ordinances ordering new
elections, reducing the number of voters, and restricting freedom of the press

· Decembrist Revolt - revolt staged by reform-minded army officers who favored the
accession of Alexander I's brother Constantine over his brother Nicolas.

· Reform Bill of 1832 - it provided for the redistribution of parliamentary seats and
virtually tripled the electorate.

· Factory Act, 1833 - legislative act enacted in Britain during the 19th century to shorten
the workday and improve working conditions in industry.

· Mines Act, 1842 - Act gaining safety for workers in the Coal Mines. Also forbid children
from working in the mines.

· Anti-Corn Law League - championed free trade and advocated the removal of high taxes
on imported grains.

· July Monarchy - the regime of Louis Philippe, was dominated by the well-to-do landed proprietors and a few wealthy businessmen and bankers.

· Poor Law , 1834 - made every local parish responsible for its own poor, created
workhouses, and severely punished homeless beggars

· Chartism - political reform movement in Britain from 1838 to 1848. The word is derived
from the People's Charter, the name applied to a legislative program submitted to Parliament in 1837 by the London Working Men's Association.
· "Bloody June Days" of 1848 : insurrection of French workingmen in June 1848 were workers in Paris rebelled and were harshly suppressed after four days (June 23-26) of street fighting
· Great Germans vs. Little Germans: People that thought that the new Germany ought to include Austrian lands, except Hungary, and a written constitution, vs. People that thought the new Germany ought to be made of smaller states, Prussia, and a the King of Prussia as a federal Emperor
· Falloux Law, 1850 : All French schools went under the power of the catholic clergy
· "forty-eighters": Disappointed German liberals and revolutionaries that migrated to the USA
· March Days : A period of political upheaval that resulted in the fall of the Austrian empire, the change of the Prussian government, war in Italy and Germany attempting to unify itself
· Prussian Constitution, 1850: Emergency and somewhat conservative to stop a liberal revolution
· Louis Kossuth : one of the leaders of the Hungarian revolution of 1848, president of the newly formed Hungarian republic but was forced to resign after Russian troops intervened in favor of Austria
· Positivism: an idea that meant an existence of verifiable facts, an avoidance of wishful thinking, a questioning of all assumptions, and a dislike of all unprovable generalizations
· Franz Joseph, 1848-1916: Austrian Emperor that asked czar Nicolas to intervene in Hungary with troops
· Realpolitick: Believing that governments ought not be governed by ideology and only to go for their own practical interests
· Roman Republic: A republic in Italy formed by Mazzini
· Communist Manifesto, 1848: A paper written by Karl Marx and Frederich Engles that described by communism would come to be and how it would be a system of non-government urging "workers of the world unite - you have nothing to lose but your chains"
· Syllabus of Errors: A writ by Pope Pius IX the "liberal pope" for Catholics to be against all liberalism, progress, and civilization
· Baron Haussman: A city architect that rebuilt Paris to its modern look
· Bach System: This was a system in Austria where the government became super centralized
· Saint-Simonians: People that created investment banking
· Frankfurt National Assembly: A meeting that attempted to unify Germany by dissolving the new small republics, and the ones made by the congress of Vienna
· Liberal Empire, 1860-1870: When Napoleon III lost popularity he put more liberal methods towards government
· Zollverein: customs union established in 19th-cent Germany to eliminate tariff barriers and to promote the economic unity of Germany.
· Berlin Assembly: A small radical committee that gave governments to Poles of West Prussia and Posen
· Crimean War, 1854-1856: This was a war between Russia and the allied powers of Turkey, England, France, and Sardinia. It was started because of an argument between Russia and France over custody of Palestinian holy places. This ended with the restriction of the Russian power in Ukraine, emergence of nurses becoming a female position, and the emergence of the nation of Sardinia Piedmont on the world scene.
· North German Confederation, 1867: This was a counter German federation formed by Otto Von Bismarck under the control of Prussia to exclude Austria.
· Risorgimento: This was an episode of cultural nationalism and political activism in the 19th century where Italians looked back at their glory days of Rome and the renaissance. Especially because of Rome, they say that it was a unified Italy and things appeared to have been at a high point. Thus people wanted to move towards the unification of Italy.
· Ems Dispatch: This was a conversation between Kaiser Wilhelm of Prussia and French ambassador, Comte Benedetti, a place called Ems. When the telegram about this was being sent to newspapers Otto von Bismarck edited it to provoke France into starting the Franco-Prussian War.
· Giuseppi Mazzini: He was an Italian patriot, revolutionist, and a leading figure in the Risorgimento. He believed that unity should be achieved by revolution and war based on direct popular action. He fought in the Revolutions of 1848 and took part in the Roman republic of 1849.
· Franco-Prussian War, 1870-71: This was a war provoked by Bismarck as part of his plan to create a unified German empire. It resulted in the over through of Napoleon III, the creation of a German Empire, the giving of land and money in France to Germany, and a revival of the showing of the strength of the Prussian military.
· Camillo di Cavour: He was an Italian statesman and the premier of Sardinia. Cavour introduced liberal internal reforms and involved Sardinia in the Crimean War. He became a large part of creating Italian unification under Victor Emanuel II
· Treaty of Frankfurt, 1871: This was the treaty that ended the Franco-Prussian War. It gave over sections of France to Germany that were eventually returned during World War I and forced the French to give money to the Germans because the French had been defeated.
· the Red Shirts: This was a volunteer army led by Mazzini to conquer Sicily and Naples.
· Compromise of 1867 (Ausgleich) : This created the Hapsburg Empire which was two different states that attempted for autonomy but were eventually crushed during World War I.
· "Italian Irredenta": This was an area of land annexed by Austria in 1866 but Italian nationalists wanted very badly to regain it. This ended up being a large reason why Italy entered World War I.
· "landlordism": East is landlord style (ie backwards)
· Otto von Bismarck : He was a German statesman, known as the Iron Chancellor; premier of Prussia and chancellor of Germany. He became powerful with the winning of the Franco-Prussian War, unification of Germany, and building of the German economy through industry.
· Russian "Intelligentsia": These were educated individuals, such as lawyers and doctors, that emerged during the reign of Alexander II.
· Schleswig-Holstein question: Problem between Prussia and Denmark, Denmark gets wooped
· Mir: These were communities that were created by serfs that were stranded by their emancipation. As a consequence, they became communes that Russian socialists looked carefully at because they wanted them to emerge as true communist commutes.
· Seven Weeks War, 1866
· Nihilists : These were Russians that wanted to advance nothing but the industry of Russia.
· People's Will: This was a group of terrorists in Russia that assassinated Tsar Alexander II. Due to this, his successor became very against Alexander II's policies and revoked many of the privileges that had been granted to the Russian populace.
· Victorian Age-describes Europe from the 19th century until WWI; England thrived under the rule of Queen Victoria.
· The "zone of civilization" The world was split into three zones, the inner zone included the industrial nations of France, England, Northeastern United sates.
· the "outer" zone consisted of the areas outside the inner zone, including Italy, Prussia, Austria, and other less industrialized nations
· the "backward" or third zone-now known as third world nations, these were "uncivilized and unsanitary." It included Africa, Southern US and below, and south America
· Atlantic Migration- Many Europeans, especially Irish, moved to America for various reasons.
· balance of payments-England had many more imports then exports, so they needed a "balance of payments" to support this. They earned the money on insurance and shipping services
· gold standards-the international economy was based on a money system which was based on the universal acceptance of gold. This enable trade to take place among all "civilized" nations.
· the Communards-Commune of Paris was a revolutionary municipal council established after discontent with the National assembly. The "communards" were the leaders of this bloody rebellion (led by socialists), and were considered savage and wild destroyers of nineteenth century civilization.
· General Boulanger-French general who organized army of people who wanted revenge against Germany in 1886-1889. Army was thought to take power, but he fled into exile during a major battle.
· Dreyfus Affair-Jewish captain was court marshaled on a flimsy treason charge, although another officer was actually guilty. Was considered anti-Semitic and showed the corruption of the French government.
· Radical Socialists-Important singly party of the republic, were radical republicans, spokesman for the less represented; took steps to prevent unionization and strikes
· Reform Bills of 1867 and 1884-extended suffrage to over 4 million people in England, or about 3/4ths of the male population (women, servants, and momma's boys couldn't vote)
· Parliament Act of 1911-gave parliamentary members salaries, enabling for wider representation since won didn't need to have another income.
· the "Irish Question"-Ireland was part of the United Kingdom, but the south Catholics wanted to break away. The northern Protestants did not because they were outnumbered, and thus a conflict that still exists today began around 1914. In 1922, the south became independent and the north remained with the UK.
· Suffragettes-women who campaigned for suffrage, used "un-English" tactics such as chaining themselves to buildings and breaking windows.

· Kulturkampf: This was a culture struggle between the Germans (Bismarck) and the Pope. Bismarck expelled the Jesuits
· antisocialist law, 1878-1890: Laws which prohibited socialist meetings and newspapers in Germany under Bismarck
· the Fabians: This (and is) a group of leftist, liberal English people, that has become today part of the Labour party. These people were considered to be revisionist socialists.
· Eduard Bernstein and revisionism: He was the founder of revisionism where he said that socialism would come to be through "evolutionary socialism" not "revolutionary socialism"
· Charles Darwin: Author of the Origin of Species, Wrote about natural selection and evolution.
· Anthropology: The study of human life and culture Thus, how people interact between themselves, and their environment
· Psychology: the scientific study of behavior and the mind.
· Sigmund Freud: A Venetian psychologist that wrote about inner desires, dreams, etc…
· Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900): Author of Uber Manche (Super Man) and Beyond Good and Evil.
· Ernest Renan: A French theologian, author of "What is a Nation?" and a famous biblical scholar that looked at the historical side of the bible
· Vatican Council, 1870: A meeting in the Vatican that declared the Edict of Papal Infallibility
· Rerum Novarum, 1891: This was a papal statement that said good wages and trade unions were allowed (88 statements total). Done by Leo XIII the "workers pope"
· Zionism: A Jewish religious movement that was centered around wanting a Jewish state.
· George Sorel: A French individual that became pissed by the Dryfus affair. A French syndicalist, (ie revolutionary socialism) Said the Future is what men make of it
· Moroccan Crises: Bismarck tries to shake up the triple entente by telling the Moroccans to rebel. They are crushed and the entente becomes more powerful
· naval race: Britain desires to maintain a fleet twice as large as next to competitors, Germany does not want to be choked off in an upcoming war by blockades
· Alfred Mahan: An American who felt that the British global power stemmed from its navy, and that sea power will always ruin its enemy in the end by blockades
· the "powder keg" of Europe: Balkans in general with various ethnicity's asserting independence
· Sarajevo crisis: The assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand in the streets of Sarajevo by the Black Hand
· the "blank check": Germany's agreement to do whatever it take to support Austria in their war
· Schlieffen plan: German plan to exploit the two-front system, and take advantage of the slow Russian mobilization; pincer attack on Paris
· Battle of Tannenberg: A successful German battle where 225,000 Russians were captured, but not important in the long run
· Zimmerman Telegram: Germans will support Mexico if US goes to war with Germany, infuriated US, reason we went to war
· Fourteen Points: Wilson's solution to the problems of Europe post WWI, creation of League of Nations, band to protect against Russian communism, small nations, no German colonies, etc.
· Woodrow Wilson: US president who was regarded as the savior of Europe, came up with 14 Points, clung to neutrality in the beginning, etc.
· mandates: League of Nations gives various nations control of German colonies to "run" or own
· League of Nations: body created by Wilson in the hopes of averting future war, place to settle differences peaceably
· national self-determination: The idea that a nation shall have autonomy
· Treaty of Versailles: Divides up Eastern Europe, creates L of N, infuriates Germans, Wilson's 14 points, English French get huge reparations, US never ratifies, cause of WWII
· war guilt clause: Germans are solely responsible for WWI, must accept responsibility, clause in T of V, causes WWII
· populists: Intelligentsia that were interested in the welfare of the common man
· Cadets: Constitutional Democratic Party members, liberal, non-revolutionary, wanted Duma
· Social revolutionaries: People which believed that Russia was on the road to revolution/Communism (i.e. Mirs=Commies)
· Provisional government: Government which Kerensky led, held joint power with Soviets, attempted to form a democratic republic, but was taken out by Bolsheviks
· Alexander Kerensky: Leader of Provisional. Government, was kind of weak and went to California
· April Theses: Lenin's ideas for how to change Russia. He wrote them and published them upon return to Russia.
· Social Democrats (SDs): A party of orthodox Marxists, breaks into Bolsheviks and Mensheviks at 1903 party conference, they wanted the capitalistic stage of capitalism
· Menshevik: A group of Socialists in Russia willing to work with the bourgeois left to establish a liberal, capitalist regime, which they considered to be a necessary precursor to a Socialist society.
· Bolshevik: the majority of the Russian Social Democratic Party who split from the Mensheviks 1903. Under Lenin, they advocated the destruction of capitalist political and economic institutions, and the setting-up of a socialist state with power in the hands of the workers
· V.I. Lenin: Mostly responsible for breakup of Social Democratic Party, treated like a saint after death. First head of the USSR, Enacted NEP
· "Bloody Sunday": Peaceful petitioners going to the Tsar are slaughtered by Cossacks
· the Dumas: Parliamentary-esque body which had no real power, attempted to make Russia a parliamentary monarchy, was ended by Tsarist forces and imprisoned the socialist reps.
· Stolypin Reforms: A result of the 1905 revolution. People are allowed to get their section of a Mir turned into private property. This created a class of people called Kulaks
· Grigori Rasputin: Nut who "infused people with the holy spirit", "whipped" the Tsarina
· Leon Trotsky: Organizational genius, founds Red Army, is killed by Stalinist agents…"You can pick your nose, you can pick your friends, but don't put a pick though your friend's nose"
· Constituent Assembly: Assembly to write constitution, was dissolved by Bolsheviks who felt it to undermine their authority, collaboration with bourgeoisie is bad they say
· Red Terror: Physical extermination of all who opposed the regime, lots killed, no bourgeoisie are in government
· CHEKA: This was the secret police that Lenin had to enact the Red Terror. Formerly known as the 3rd Section, later known as the KGB
· New Economic Policy (NEP): This was Lenin's meeting halfway with capitalism to revive the Russian Economy
· Five Year Plans: These were economic policies under Stalin to make Russia powerful again. It succeeded in reviving industry, but not agriculture.
· collectivization: This was the plan from Stalin to increase the agricultural output of Russia. Due to the faults in it, it failed
· Comintern: This was the group of communists that would meet regularly to discuss the spread of communism
· Spartacist Party: People who sought a communist government in Germany, staged an uprising that was put down by the Provisional government.
· Social Democrats: The previously far-left socialists, who were forced into the dangerous middle ground by the emergence of pro-Bolshevik groups. Ran the provisional government.
· Kapp Putsch: Uprising by the rightist generals who sought to place a figurehead as the government leader. Put down by quick thinking city workers who shut down utilities.
· The Diktat: The dictated peace by the Treaty of Versailles that was the enemy of all Germans. War guilt clause, offends German honor, Germans never really accepted them.
· Dawes Plan: American plans - French evacuate Ruhr, reparations are cut, Germans borrow abroad to rebuild
· Lacarno Plan: Germany agrees to boarders with France, Brussels; also agrees to only seek peaceful solutions in Eastern Europe regarding boarders
· Mustapha Kemal: Conservative reformer army officer who established Turkish Republic and drove out the foreigners who tried to invade and occupy, religious functionary
· Mohandas K. Gandhi: Rallying point for Indians who dissented, peaceful dissenter, famous for fasting.
· Kemal Ataturk: Forced Western Ideas on Turks, abolished lots, etc. Reformed
· Sun Yat-sen: Organized Kuomintang, sets up republic/benevolent despotism, fights communists, allies with communists
· Three People's Principles: democracy: "sovereignty of the people" actually benevolent despotism; nationalism: think as a country, not community or clan; livelihood: socialism
· Kuomintang: Nationalists, fought and allied with commies, got kicked out, wanted TPP
· Chiang Kai-shek: Succeeded Yat-sen, tried to compel the warlords and regime in Peking to join Nationalists
· Hawley-Smoot tariff: Very high US protective tariffs, other nations can sell less to the US, are ruined financially, worldwide downward spiral
· Creditanstalt: Leading Vienna bank that went bankrupt, caused trouble in business in Europe
· Ottawa agreements: British domains have lower internal tariffs
· Mao Tse-tung: Communist leader, set up Chinese soviet republic, then marched and set up a stronghold in the North West near Russia
· Weimar Republic: German Provisional Government, ruled by Social democrats, had lots of problems, run away inflation, revolts, private armies, etc.; Nazis take over from.
· The "dole" - unemployment insurance in Britain. So called by those who disapproved of it. By 1921 2 million people were on it.
· Trade Disputes Act, 1927 - an act passed after the failed British Labor Union's "general strike." Put the unions under stricter controls. It declared all general or sympathy strikes illegal and forbade Unions from rising money for political purposes.
· The Nationalist Government - an all-party coalition cabinet formed by Prime Minister MacDonald after he got das boot from the Labor Party. In an election of 1931 the Nationalist Government won and overwhelming victory.
· Radical Socialists - together with the Socialists formed a coalition cabinet of which Leon Blums was premier. The communists did not join but pledged their support.
· The Popular Front, 1936 - A political coalition of liberals, Socialist, and Communists. It campaigned against Fascism and pledged to take measures against the depression and push through Labor Reforms.
· Leon Blum - The leader of the French Socialists when they were the leading party in the chamber. Very popular at first but then less so as time went on and Germany got stronger while France got weaker.
· Dictatorship - commonly regarded as a mere expedient, a temporary theory of government designed for emergencies. The state controls everything through the military and one person or group controls the state.
· Totalitarianism - very similar to dictatorship but supposedly permanent. It regards life itself as an everlasting emergency so therefore an emergency government is always necessary. Relies heavily on propaganda.
· Treaty of London, 1915 - A secret treaty between Italy and the allies during WWI. It promised Italy certain Austrian lands and a share in the Turkish and German possessions. The treaty was disregarded by Wilson at Versailles. Italy received next to nothing.
· "March on Rome" - Mussolini organized all his black shirts to march to the city of Rome. This showed the power of the fascist sections in Italy. Mussolini himself waited in Milan and then took the train in when it looked like the black shirts were going to be successful.
· The Corporate State - a theory put in place by Mussolini that divided all economic life into 22 major areas. In each area there was a corporation made up of Fascists, employers, and the government. The corporation set down wages, prices and industrial policies. A larger national council was supposed to jointly, with the help of all the corporations, devise a plan for Italy's self-sufficiency.
· Mein Kampf - a book written by Hitler when he was in prison. It translates into my struggle. Outlines all of Hitler's plans for the government and even the persecution of the Jews.
· Nuremberg Laws, 1935 - took away citizenship rights of Jews and forbid marriage or even sexual relations between Jews and non-Jews.
· Gestapo - They were Hitler's secret political police.
· Strength through Joy - an organization under Hitler which funded vacations, entertainment and small incomes for German working class families who couldn't otherwise afford it.
· Organic theory of society - Everybody in society is a cell that is part of a whole… thus individuals do not count, only society as a whole
· Munich Conference- September 30, 1938- A conference held between Hitler of Germany, Mussolini of Italy, Chamberlain of Britain, and Daladier of France to decide the fate of Czechoslovakia. Chamberlain allowed Hitler to take over the Sudetenland. As a result, many people thought that he sold the Czechs out, but in retrospect it might have been a strategic move to allow the British armed forces more time to build themselves up.

· Dunkirk Evacuation- More than 300,000 British and other allied forces were evacuated by the British from Dunkirk port. The British enlisted the help of EVERY ship they could find to help ferry the soldiers out before the arrival of the German army. The evacuation was a success, although the allies were forced to leave much of their heavy artillery, tanks, mechanized infantry, etc.

· Blitzkrieg- German for "lightening war", this was Hitler's military tactic used for taking over Poland. This tactic involved massive bombing to weaken defenses followed by immediate large-scale attack from ground troops.

· Battle of Leyte Gulf- October 23-26, 1944 - was a naval and air battle and a critical turning point in the war in that it gave the US a chance to invade the Philippines and let the allies take control of the Pacific. Also, this battle badly crippled the Japanese naval fleet and allowed the allies to take the island of Okinawa.

· Festung Europa- German for "the Fortress of Europe" this refers to the countries that Hitler took over and fortified with his soiliders.

· Island Hopping- An amphibious warfare strategy used in the Pacific mainly by the US General Douglas MacArthur. This strategy involved moving from island to island, conquering one archipelago at a time. This tactic was very slow and tedious, but it was effective.

· Genocide- the deliberate and systematic destruction of a racial, political, or cultural group

· Yalta conference- feb 1945- major World War II conference of the three chief Allied leaders, President Franklin D. Roosevelt of the United States, Prime Minister Winston Churchill of Great Britain, and Premier Joseph Stalin of the Soviet Union (see photograph), which met at Yalta in the Crimea to plan the final defeat and occupation of Nazi Germany. Divide Germany, and start UN

· Big Three - Roosevelt (USA), Churchill (Britain), Stalin (Russia)

· Atlantic Charter - Roosevelt and Churchill meet say there will be no trade restrictions after the war and that all conquered nations will have their soveigern rights reinstated

· Battle of Britain 1940- Luftwaffen vs RAF. Germans bomb air fields. British accidentally bomb German civilians. Germans retaliate and bomb many British citizens. British eventually win because they have good RADAR and they crack the German code.

· Battle of Stalingrad 1942- An unsuccessful German assault on the city of Stalingrad (now Volgograd) in the Russian S.F.S.R. during World War II that marked the furthest extent of the German advance into the Soviet Union. As a major industrial centre, Stalingrad was an important prize in itself, and control of the city would have cut Soviet transport links with southern Russia via the Volga River. The German campaign against Stalingrad also served to anchor the northern flank of the larger German drive into the oil fields of the Caucasus. VERY IMPORTANT TURNING POINT BECAUSE IT MAKES HITLER LOOK VULNERABLE

· Katyan forest- Place where many polish officers are massacred by the Germans

· Maginot Line - elaborate defensive barrier in northeast France constructed in the 1930s and named after its principal creator, André Maginot, who was France's minister of war in 1929-31. French concentrate most of their defense forces there but the Germans just go around it (dumb ass French people)

· Cordon Sanitaire- Belt of countries from Finland to Romania created to stop the spread of communism to Easter Europe. Created after WW1 by treaty of Versailles

· Anschluss - (German: "Union"), political union of Austria with Germany, achieved through annexation by Adolf Hitler in 1938.

· Oxford resolution - 1933- students resolved that they would never take up arms for their country under any circumstances.

· Nazi-Soviet Pact- (Aug. 23, 1939), nonaggression pact between Germany and the Soviet Union that was concluded a few days before the beginning of World War II and which divided eastern Europe into German and Soviet spheres of influence.

· Appeasement- ??? when Nevil Chamberlain allowed Hitler to take the Sudatinland in Czech. To appease him

· General Fracisco Franco- in full Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo Franco Bahamonde, byname El Caudillo ("The Leader")general and leader of the Nationalist forces that overthrew the Spanish democratic republic in the Spanish Civil War (1936-39); thereafter he was the head of the government of Spain until 1973 and head of state until his death in 1975. Very right wing militant
Berlin Blockade: Soviet cutting off East Berlin from West Berlin… Unsuccessful due to American airlifts
· Benazir Bhutto: Corrupt female prime minister of Pakistan during parts of the 1980's and 1990's
· General Douglas MacArthur: Leader of US army in Asia during WWII and Korean War, Almost started WWIII by trying to invade China
· Commonwealth of Nations: Many former British Colonies that still stay connected with Britain with Economic and Military ties
· Kim II Sung: Communist Leader of North Korea from 1948-1994
· Sukarno: Indonesian Communist leader who tried to unite the Indonesian islands and get large ties with China
· Syngman Rhee: South Korean President from 1946-1960… wanted a unified Korea
· Ho Chi Minh: Vietnamese dude who succeeded in gaining Vietnam's independence by guerilla tactics against the French and Americans and bringing Communism to 'nam
· Korean War: WWIII almost breaks out… first time a UN peacekeeping force is used… USA, China, and USSR get involved
· Dien Bien Phu: The last French stronghold in Vietnam, eventually defeated after a 56 day seige
· Lend-Lease: Money and farm equipment is given to Germany
· Ferdinand Marcos: Corrupt Philippines leader who embezzled lots of money with his wife
· George C. Marshall: a US mucka-muck who creates the Marshall plan after WWII to help rebuild Europe
· Kwame Nkrumah: Semi-Corrupt leader of Ghana, played off the USA and USSR for $
· OEEC: Office of European Economic Cooperation, decides how the $12 billion US aid is spent
· Biafran War: A war in Nigeria where a nation "Biafra" proclaimed its independence… only to get its ass kicked
· "Economic miracle": it only takes a few years until Germany surpasses prewar industrial output and becomes European leader in industry.
· Mau Mau movement: The government sponsored slaughter of whites in Kenya and Rhodesia
· United Nations: This was an international organization similar to the League of Nations except this has a military task force à it has power, purposes of the UN Created near the end of World War II in San Francisco (later moved to New York
· EFTA: the European Free Trade Association wo goals: to establish free trade among members and to seek a broader economic union with the rest of Western Europe, originally formed from the "Outer 7" nations (the nations on the coast of Europe and England
· Security Council: a permanent council of the United Nations with primary responsibility for maintaining peace and security
· NKVD (KGB): secret police of Russia, formerly known as the Third Section, The "evil FBI"
· General Assembly: Everybody in the UN resides here. Deals with the common matters
· Nikita S. Khrushchev: Premier of the USSR 1958-1964… Enacted de-Stalinization and some intellectual thawing
· Five Great Powers: These are the five permanent members of the UN security council, USA, Russia, China, France, and England
· de-Stalinization: This was Khrushchev's plan to remove all things Stalin from Russia… and not being an uppity dictator!!!
· Truman Doctrine: Truman's Promise to help any nation in the prevention of a communist take-over
· Sputnik: The first satellite in outer space, launched by the Russians, starts the space race
· Policy of Containment: the American plan to prevent the expansion of the USSR and keep a balance of power
· Leonid Brezhnev: A stupid Russian leader after Khrushchev, made many stupid mistakes (agriculture plans, no industry, Afghan war)
· Marshall Plan: a huge donation of $$$ from the USA to Europe to help rebuild after World War II (only Finland ever gives us our $$$ back)… leads to rapid recover of western Europe
· Helsinki accord: 1974 agreement by all nations in Europe to provide basic human rights and to agree not to attack other nation's boundaries in Europe
· Cominform: almost the same thing as the old Comintern (third international), comprised of Soviet and Soviet Bloc countries, had no real power (only published commie material)
· "Iron curtain": A term coined by Churchill to describe the separation between eastern and western Europe
· Bizonia: "Two zones"… the British and USA zones combined in 1946, France joins in 1947 "trizonia", creates economic balance and centralized administrations
· "Prague Spring" the secret attack of Czechoslovakia by the Soviets in 1968. This resulted in the forcing of a conversion to communism in Czechoslovakia that would last until 1989.
· Federal Republic of Germany (West): The democratic and section of Germany, prosperous
· Alexander Dubcek: Leader of Czechoslovakia during Prague Spring
· German Democratic Republic (East): Communist Germany, poor!!!
· Brezhnev doctrine: Equivalent of the Truman Doctrine except it promotes Communism
· Atlantic Pact: North Atlantic nations agree to protect each other from aggression
· People's Republic of China (PRC): the 1971 renaming of China to its modern name
· North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO): A group of nations that agreed to thwart soviet aggression, now it is a general peacekeeping force
· Great Leap Forward: Mao's semi-successful rapid industrialization of china in the 1950's… results in lots of poorly made products
· Warsaw Pact: Soviet bloc nations agree to work to protect each other, similar to NATO
· Cultural Revolution: Disastrous destruction of the intellectual class in Russia by Mao in the late 60's because he was paranoid à Little Red Book
· COMECON: Council for Mutual Economic Assistance, a communist economic association similar to the EU or EEC
· Zhou Enlais: Chinese premier largely responsible for the reestablishment of ties with the west
· Marshal Tito: Communist Yugoslavian the Russians hated because he ran a semi-successful commie nation without being under the control of USSR
· Indira Gandhi: Daughter of Nehru and assassinated Indian leader
· Christian Democrats: A political party in Germany that attempted to fight against the remains of the old nazi regime with morals and ethics
· Jomo Kenyatta: The first president of Kenya
· Clement Attlee: English Prime Minister between the terms of Churchill… makes England a welfare state
· Nelson Mandela: African revolutionary who succeeded in overthrowing apartheid and getting a black vote in South Africa
· Beveridge Report of 1942: A report written by an English economist that urged fro the creation of a welfare state
· African National Congress: The oldest Black political organization in Africa… crucial in ending apartheid
· Irish Republican Army: A militant wing of Sinn Fein which tries to make Ireland a unified nation
· F. W. de Klerk: The last white president of South Africa who worked secretly with Mandela to end apartheid
· General Charles DeGaulle: Crazy French leader who created the 5th republic, wrote his own constitution and waged war with Algeria
· Joseph Kasavubu: The first president of Congo
· Fourth Republic: The coalition government after World War II in France between Communists and Moderates
· Patrice Lumumba: The first premier of Congo
· Fifth Republic: The most recent French republic created by DeGaulle as a result of the Algeria situation
· Joseph Mobutu: The leader of Zaire (congo) from 1967-1997… created lots of nationalism, anti-Europeanism, and inflation
· Colons: These were white people living in Algeria… Due to them DeGaulle did not want to give independence to Algeria
· Tutsi and Hutu: The ethnic groups in Rwanda slaughtered "Ethnic Cleansing:
· Nuremberg Trials: The war crimes tribunal for nazis at the end of WWII, leads to many executions of high ranking nazi officials
· Colonel Qaddafi: Lybian anti-western dictator famous for promoting IRA, PLA, and other similar organisations
· 'denazification": A policy in the 1940's and onward to erase any remnants of the Nazis (such as detruction of monuments and burning of flags)
· Colonel Abdul Gamel Nasser: Egyptian who wages war with Israel in the Yom Kippur war (gets ass whooped and is given $ at the Camp David Accords)
· Konrad Adenauer: German prime minister "Der Alte", secured West Germany in the EU and helped rebuild after the war
· Anwar al-Sadat: Egyptian leader who recaptured part of Israel and made a peace pact with them
· Willy Brandt: German political leader that lead peace talks in the 1970's with Eastern European nations
· Yasir Arafat: The leader of the PLA (Palestinian liberation army) who is always trying to get into a fight with Israel
· Helmut Schmidt : The chancellor of west Germany in the 1970's, promoted openness among free nations in Europe
· Menachem Begin: Israeli who waged war on Lebanon in the 1980's --> political unrest and das boot
· GATT: General Agreement on Trades and Tariffs… a group set up by the UN to help make international trading easier
· Ayatollah Khomeini: A radical Muslim from Iran who held Americans hostage… De-liberalized Iran
· Bretton Woods conference: A meeting just after WWII that created the IMF and the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development
· Cuban missile crisis: 1961 movement of missiles into Cuba by Russia to prevent a US take over, results in the "thirteen days" and the promise of the USA not to ever invade Cuba
· IMF: International Monetary Fund… gives cash to nations that are in trouble and need it
· Deng Xiaoping: Loosened governmental control of the economy and ordered for military force in the Tiananmen Square incident
· Schumann Plan: A proposed (and later ratified) plan to conjoin the French and German Steel/Coal industries … a first step in creating the EU
· Mikhail Gorbachev: The last premier of the USSR, enacts glasnost and perestroika, has a red spot on his head,
· Treaty of Rome (1957): An agreement by the Central 6 to enact the Schumann plan (along with Atomic Power) and create the EEC
· Glasnost: "Openness", Gorbachev's policy, freedom of speech/expression
· EEC (Common Market): inner six countries have no tariffs and agricultural prices are fixed
· Perestroika: Restructuring, Gorbachev's attempt to democratize Russia without disbanding the USSR
· Solidarity: Polish union instrumental in the overthrow of Communist Poland… founded by Walesa
· Bosnia: Site of ethnic cleansing and warfare in the Balkans in former Yugoslavia in the mid-90's
· Pope John XXIII: Reform pope who called for social reform and organized the second Vatican council to modernize the church
· Slobodan Milosovic: The evil dictator in Serbia who killed lots of ethnic Albanians… just got das boot from power
· Feminism: a movement among women in the 60's and 70's for equal rights for women i.e. the reason why I cannot tell a woman "get in the kitchen and fix me a samich!"…
· Serbia: A nation in the Balkans led by the evil leader Slobodan Milosovic
· Lech Walesa: Polish rebel who overthrows the Communist regime in Poland
· "Ethnic cleansing": the genocide of an entire ethnic group… examples are seen with Jews, ethnic Albanians, and the Tutsis and Hutus
· Helmut Kohl: Chancellor of Germany from the 1980's to 1998, made West Germany a nation influential in world politics
· Vaclav Havel: President of Czechoslovakia instrumental in the end of Communist power
· Boris Yeltsin: Fat, drunk, previous leader of Russia… Succeeded in making the Russians hate democracy by enacting stupid policies that made Russia a former shadow of its USSR "glory days"



Good luck all from Zach and Nate!